Trasformers Navigation menu VideoTRANSFORMERS: THE BASICS on SPACE BRIDGES
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Some large transformers employ electric fans for forced-air cooling, pumps for forced-liquid cooling, or have heat exchangers for water-cooling.
Polychlorinated biphenyls have properties that once favored their use as a dielectric coolant , though concerns over their environmental persistence led to a widespread ban on their use.
Some transformers, instead of being liquid-filled, have their windings enclosed in sealed, pressurized tanks and cooled by nitrogen or sulfur hexafluoride gas.
Insulation must be provided between the individual turns of the windings, between the windings, between windings and core, and at the terminals of the winding.
Inter-turn insulation of small transformers may be a layer of insulating varnish on the wire. Layer of paper or polymer films may be inserted between layers of windings, and between primary and secondary windings.
A transformer may be coated or dipped in a polymer resin to improve the strength of windings and protect them from moisture or corrosion.
The resin may be impregnated into the winding insulation using combinations of vacuum and pressure during the coating process, eliminating all air voids in the winding.
In the limit, the entire coil may be placed in a mold, and resin cast around it as a solid block, encapsulating the windings.
Large oil-filled power transformers use windings wrapped with insulating paper, which is impregnated with oil during assembly of the transformer.
Oil-filled transformers use highly refined mineral oil to insulate and cool the windings and core. Construction of oil-filled transformers requires that the insulation covering the windings be thoroughly dried of residual moisture before the oil is introduced.
Drying may be done by circulating hot air around the core, by circulating externally heated transformer oil, or by vapor-phase drying VPD where an evaporated solvent transfers heat by condensation on the coil and core.
For small transformers, resistance heating by injection of current into the windings is used. Larger transformers are provided with high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain.
A large bushing can be a complex structure since it must provide careful control of the electric field gradient without letting the transformer leak oil.
Various specific electrical application designs require a variety of transformer types. Although they all share the basic characteristic transformer principles, they are customized in construction or electrical properties for certain installation requirements or circuit conditions.
In electric power transmission , transformers allow transmission of electric power at high voltages, which reduces the loss due to heating of the wires.
This allows generating plants to be located economically at a distance from electrical consumers. In many electronic devices, a transformer is used to convert voltage from the distribution wiring to convenient values for the circuit requirements, either directly at the power line frequency or through a switch mode power supply.
Signal and audio transformers are used to couple stages of amplifiers and to match devices such as microphones and record players to the input of amplifiers.
Audio transformers allowed telephone circuits to carry on a two-way conversation over a single pair of wires. A balun transformer converts a signal that is referenced to ground to a signal that has balanced voltages to ground , such as between external cables and internal circuits.
Isolation transformers prevent leakage of current into the secondary circuit and are used in medical equipment and at construction sites. Resonant transformers are used for coupling between stages of radio receivers, or in high-voltage Tesla coils.
Electromagnetic induction , the principle of the operation of the transformer, was discovered independently by Michael Faraday in and Joseph Henry in Faraday performed early experiments on induction between coils of wire, including winding a pair of coils around an iron ring, thus creating the first toroidal closed-core transformer.
The first type of transformer to see wide use was the induction coil , invented by Rev. Nicholas Callan of Maynooth College , Ireland in Induction coils evolved from scientists' and inventors' efforts to get higher voltages from batteries.
Since batteries produce direct current DC rather than AC, induction coils relied upon vibrating electrical contacts that regularly interrupted the current in the primary to create the flux changes necessary for induction.
Between the s and the s, efforts to build better induction coils, mostly by trial and error, slowly revealed the basic principles of transformers.
By the s, efficient generators producing alternating current AC were available, and it was found AC could power an induction coil directly, without an interrupter.
In , Russian engineer Pavel Yablochkov invented a lighting system based on a set of induction coils where the primary windings were connected to a source of AC.
The secondary windings could be connected to several 'electric candles' arc lamps of his own design. The coils Yablochkov employed functioned essentially as transformers.
In , the Ganz factory , Budapest, Hungary, began producing equipment for electric lighting and, by , had installed over fifty systems in Austria-Hungary.
Their AC systems used arc and incandescent lamps, generators, and other equipment. Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs first exhibited a device with an open iron core called a 'secondary generator' in London in , then sold the idea to the Westinghouse company in the United States.
Induction coils with open magnetic circuits are inefficient at transferring power to loads. Until about , the paradigm for AC power transmission from a high voltage supply to a low voltage load was a series circuit.
Open-core transformers with a ratio near were connected with their primaries in series to allow use of a high voltage for transmission while presenting a low voltage to the lamps.
The inherent flaw in this method was that turning off a single lamp or other electric device affected the voltage supplied to all others on the same circuit.
Many adjustable transformer designs were introduced to compensate for this problematic characteristic of the series circuit, including those employing methods of adjusting the core or bypassing the magnetic flux around part of a coil.
In both designs, the magnetic flux linking the primary and secondary windings traveled almost entirely within the confines of the iron core, with no intentional path through air see Toroidal cores below.
The new transformers were 3. Transformers today are designed on the principles discovered by the three engineers.
They also popularized the word 'transformer' to describe a device for altering the EMF of an electric current  although the term had already been in use by Although George Westinghouse had bought Gaulard and Gibbs' patents in , the Edison Electric Light Company held an option on the US rights for the ZBD transformers, requiring Westinghouse to pursue alternative designs on the same principles.
He assigned to William Stanley the task of developing a device for commercial use in United States. This design  was first used commercially in the US in  but Westinghouse was intent on improving the Stanley design to make it unlike the ZBD type easy and cheap to produce.
Pre-wound copper coils could then be slid into place, and straight iron plates laid in to create a closed magnetic circuit. Westinghouse otained a patent for the new low-cost design in In , Russian-born engineer Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky developed the first three-phase transformer at the Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft 'General Electricity Company' in Germany.
In , Nikola Tesla invented the Tesla coil , an air-cored, dual-tuned resonant transformer for producing very high voltages at high frequency. Audio frequency transformers " repeating coils " were used by early experimenters in the development of the telephone.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Electrical device that transfers energy through electromagnetic induction from one circuit to another circuit.
It may be used to step up or step down the voltage. This article is about the electrical device. For the media and toy franchise, see Transformers.
For other uses, see Transformer disambiguation. Combining the ratio of eq. Main article: Leakage inductance. See also: Steinmetz equivalent circuit.
Main article: Transformer types. Main article: Induction coil. High-voltage transformer fire barriers Inductive coupling Load profile Magnetization Paraformer Polyphase system Power inverter Rectiformer Voltage converter.
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Show HTML View more styles. User Polls The Meanest Digital Artificial Intelligence Car-studded Films No More Sequels Please! Who Is Your Favorite Alien?
Best "Worst Rated" Blockbuster Movie What if They Kept the Fake Working Title? Nominated for 3 Oscars. Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Shia LaBeouf Sam Witwicky Megan Fox Mikaela Banes Josh Duhamel Captain Lennox Tyrese Gibson USAF Tech Sergeant Epps Rachael Taylor Maggie Madsen Anthony Anderson Glen Whitmann Jon Voight Defense Secretary John Keller John Turturro Agent Simmons Michael O'Neill Tom Banacheck Kevin Dunn Ron Witwicky Julie White Judy Witwicky Amaury Nolasco ACWO Jorge "Fig" Figueroa Zack Ward First Sergeant Donnelly Luis Echagarruga Ranger Team Patrick Mulderrig Edit Storyline High-school student Sam Witwicky buys his first car, who is actually the Autobot Bumblebee.
Taglines: Their war. Our world. Edit Did You Know? Trivia The Transformers possessed such a rich level of detail and complexity, it took the ILM animators thirty-eight hours to fill them in a single frame of the film.
Goofs at around 1h 30 mins When "Sector 7" agent Tom Banacheck shows two different ALIEN images to Defense Secretary John Keller he states that one is from the Soccent base attack in Qatar [by Blackout] and the other he explains is an image taken from the Beagle 2 Mars Rover.
Quotes [ first lines ] Optimus Prime : Before time began, there was the Cube. We know not where it comes from, only that it holds the power to create worlds and fill them with life.
That is how our race was born. For a time, we lived in harmony. But like all great power, some wanted it for good, others for evil.
And so began the war. A war that ravaged our planet until it was consumed by death, and the Cube was lost to the far reaches of space.
We scattered across the galaxy, hoping to find it and rebuild our home. Crazy Credits The DreamWorks and Paramount logos are accompanied by a series of robotic sounds.
Alternate Versions The full screen version shown on TV adds two additional cuts to the scene where Scorponok knocks over a water tower in the desert.
After the tower is knocked down, Donnelly 'Zack Ward' asks what happened, it cuts to Fig Amaury Nolasco who responds in Spanish, then cuts back again to Donnelly.
This was most likely done because both actors are visible in the shot in wide screen, but in full screen Fig is not visible. Was this review helpful to you?
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Edit Details Official Sites: Official Facebook Paramount [United States]. Country: USA. Language: English Spanish.
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Archived from the original on July 19, Retrieved November 18, DeKnight Joins Robert Kirman in Transformers Writers Room". June 9,Transformers Collectors Club Vikings Hochzeitsnacht. The choice of construction represents a trade-off between initial cost and operating cost. IEC History. Xbox Design and Electricity: A Manual for Students in Advanced Classes. We scattered across the galaxy, hoping to find it and Eberhofer Stirbt our home. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Transformers film series. Algora Publishing. Archived from the original on August Flavors Of Youth, Capacitor types Ceramic resonator Crystal oscillator Inductor Parametron Relay reed relay Beniamino Gigli relay. In the limit, the entire coil may be placed in a mold, and resin cast around it as a solid block, encapsulating the windings. The stranded conductor is also more flexible than a solid conductor of similar size, aiding manufacture. Get a sneak peek of the new version of this page. The writers felt that even if it would look silly, not having the robots speak would betray the fanbase. Westinghouse otained Br-Online Wir In Bayern patent for the new low-cost Trasformers in